Mitosis and Meiosis describes the way in which cells divide and reproduce. Cell reproduction is fundamental in understanding how species such as humans reproduce.
One of the ways in which cells reproduce is called Mitosis and it is a type of cell division, which means that a parent cell divides into two daughter cells. The process of mitosis is divided into four stages known as: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction used by single-celled organisms for reproduction, as well as being used for the growth of tissues, fibers and membranes. Mitosis is a process used in all organisms.
During the prophase, the membrane dissolves. In the metaphase proteins in the chromosome move the chromosome, placing it at the center of the cell. During the anaphase chromosomes are split and moved towards the end of the cell, the two portions of the cell are referred to as daughter chromosomes. During the final phase, telophase, the two chromosomes attach to their parent cell, and the previous stages are repeated- but in reverse. After the four stages are completed, a process known as cytokinesis takes place, in which the daughter chromosome becomes a daughter cell. Once this is complete two new cells are formed which are identical to the original parent cell.
Meiosis is a specific cell division that results in either a sperm or an egg, which carries one half of the chromosome found in the parent cell. There is only one main purpose to Meiosis, which is for sexual reproduction and the propagation of the species. This process occurs in humans, animals, plants and fungi. Like meiosis this procedure is also a multistage procedure.
The two phases of meiosis is called meiosis 1 and meiosis 2 and both stages have four sub-stages of their own. Meiosis 1 has phases consisting of prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1 and telophase 1. Likewise meiosis 2 has prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2 and telophase 2. In meiosis 1, a germ cells splits into two diploid cells and there is an exchange of genetic material, however the processes of meiosis 2 is similar to the process witnessed in mitosis
Scientists research these processes to find relationships within a cell’s structure and such knowledge can be applied in biomechanics and nanotechnology. It is hoped that a further understand of these processes can lead to better medical procedures and technology.
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